Current Bishops of the Archdiocese of Atlanta

Past Bishops of Atlanta

Most Rev. John F. Donoghue, Fifth Archbishop of Atlanta (1993-2004)

Archbishop John F. Donoghue

“To Live in Christ Jesus”

Archbishop Donoghue was named as the fifth Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Atlanta in 1993.  When he was appointed to Atlanta, Archbishop Donoghue made the center of his pastoral work among Catholics to renew understanding of and devotion to the Eucharist as the real presence of Christ.  He served North Georgia faithfully until his retirement on December 9, 2004.  On November 11, 2011, Archbishop-Emeritus John F. Donoghue passed away at the age of 83.

Archbishop Donoghue
Coat of Arms

donoghue_armsThe entire “achievement,” or coat of arms as it is generally called, is composed of the shield with its charges, the motto and the external ornaments. As one looks at the shield the terms dexter (right) and sinister (left) must be understood contrariwise, as the shield was worn on the arm in medieval days and these terms were used in the relationship of the one bearing the shield.

The dexter impalement is given in ecclesiastical heraldry to the arms of jurisdiction; in this instance, the arms of the Archdiocese of Atlanta.

Atlanta known as the “Crossroads of the South,” because of converging railroads which gave the city its early prominence, received its name as the eastern terminus of the Western and Atlantic Railroad which connected north Georgia with the Tennessee River. Originally called Whitehall, then Terminus, and afterwards in 1843 Marthasville, the state legislature finally acquiesced to the wishes of the railroad and accepted the name of Atlanta in 1847, thus naming the city indirectly after the Atlantic Ocean.

The Atlantic Ocean is represented on the shield of the archdiocese by white and blue wavy bars, the heraldic equivalent of the waves of the sea; seven bars in number to symbolize the Seven Sacraments.

The crown of Christ the King denotes the title of the cathedral church, the Eternal King whose redeeming Sacrifice on the Cross is renewed daily in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Above the crown is placed the Cherokee rose, the State flower of Georgia (Rosa Laevigata), as befits an archdiocese located in the Capital City. The Cherokee rose is a white flower with a yellow center.

The crown of Christ the King, in the arms of the Archdiocese of Atlanta, also has the secondary representation of the crown of King George II of England after whom Georgia was named. The blue and white wavy bands may be said as well to symbolize the rolling foothills of the Blue Ridge country; but, more important, these are the colors of our Blessed Mother.

The sinister impalement, on the right of the viewer, bears the personal arms of Archbishop Donoghue. These consist of a field, or surface quartered green and red. The quartering is found in the arms of the Archdiocese of Washington, and commemorates Archbishop Donoghue’s priestly ministry in that archdiocese. The green and red are the surface colors of the arms of the Irish septs of O’Donoghue and Ryan, and honor the Archbishop’s paternal and maternal ancestry.

The central charge of the arms is a silver (white) cross with its limbs terminating in a fleur-de-lis. This cross flory honors Archbishop Donoghue’s baptismal patron, Saint John Vianney (1786-1859). The fleur-de-lis has long been a symbol of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and here joined to the cross, alludes to the Archbishop’s Pauline motto and his devotion to Christ’s Mother. The chief portion of the shield is ermine (white and black ermine tails) and commemorates Archbishop Donoghue’s long association with Patrick Cardinal O’Boyle, second archbishop of Washington, whose arms bore an ermine chief.

The motto, “To Live in Christ Jesus,” has been adapted from Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Philippians 1:21.

In pale behind the arms is placed a gold archiepiscopal cross with a double transverse. A pontifical hat with ten tassels on each side disposed in four rows, all green, surrounds the shield ensigning the whole achievement.

Prior to 1870, the pontifical hat was worn in solemn conclaves held in conjunction with papal functions. The color of the pontifical hat and the number and color of the tassels were signs of the rank of a prelate, a custom which is still preserved in ecclesiastical heraldry.

Most Rev. James P. Lyke, Fourth Archbishop of Atlanta (1991-1992)

Archbishop James P. Lyke

“Christus Pax”

On June 24, 1991, the Most Reverend James P. Lyke was installed as the fourth Archbishop of Atlanta.  Archbishop Lyke grew up in Chicago and was a convert to Catholicism.  He served as Auxiliary Bishop of Cleveland from 1979-1990.  At the time of his death from cancer on December 27, 1992, Archbishop Lyke was the highest-ranking African-American clergyman in the United States.

Coat of Arms

Archbishop Lyke Coat of ArmsThe entire “achievement,” or coat of arms as it is generally called, is composed of the shield with its charges, the motto and the external ornaments. As one looks at the shield the terms dexter (right) and sinister (left) must be understood contrariwise, as the shield was worn on the arm in medieval days and these terms were used in the relationship of the one bearing the shield.

The dexter impalement is given in ecclesiastical heraldry to the arms of jurisdiction; in this instance, the arms of the Archdiocese of Atlanta.

Atlanta known as the “Crossroads of the South,” because of converging railroads which gave the city its early prominence, received its name as the eastern terminus of the Western and Atlantic Railroad which connected north Georgia with the Tennessee River. Originally called Whitehall, then Terminus, and afterwards in 1843 Marthasville, the state legislature finally acquiesced to the wishes of the railroad and accepted the name of Atlanta in 1847, thus naming the city indirectly after the Atlantic Ocean.

The Atlantic Ocean is represented on the shield of the archdiocese by white and blue wavy bars, the heraldic equivalent of the waves of the sea; seven bars in number to symbolize the Seven Sacraments.

The crown of Christ the King denotes the title of the cathedral church, the Eternal King whose redeeming Sacrifice on the Cross is renewed daily in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Above the crown is placed the Cherokee rose, the State flower of Georgia (Rosa Laevigata), as befits an archdiocese located in the Capital City. The Cherokee rose is a white flower with a yellow center.

The crown of Christ the King, in the arms of the Archdiocese of Atlanta, also has the secondary representation of the crown of King George II of England after whom Georgia was named. The blue and white wavy bands may be said as well to symbolize the rolling foothills of the Blue Ridge country; but, more important, these are the colors of our Blessed Mother.

The sinister impalement, on the right of the viewer, bears the personal arms of Archbishop Lyke. These consist of a quartered shield on the lower two-thirds of the sinister in black and green with a gold cross. Superimposed on this is a narrower red cross. The colors red, black and green are significant to black Americans because they were used by the United Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League. They are dominant in the flags of many African nations. Red symbolizes redemption, blood and liberty; black is for the black people and green stands for hope.

The quartered shield with the gold cross recalls the mystery of the Church and honors Pope John Paul II from whose coat of arms it is derived. The narrower cross imposed on the gold cross is red, the academic color for theology and conveys Archbishop Lyke’s special interest in same.

In the first quadrant of the quartered shield is a white chaplet of the Franciscan cord to emphasize Archbishop Lyke’s devotion to Saint Francis of Assisi and the Franciscan ideal.

The upper portion of the shield displays the arms of the Friars Minor. The field is silver (white) with a black Latin cross above two crossed arms. One arm wears a Franciscan robe representing Saint Francis. It is pierced, recalling that the saint was a stigmatic. The other arm with pierced hand represents the crucified Christ.

The Latin motto “Christus Pax,” translates as “Christ Our Peace,” and is taken from Saint Paul’s epistle to the Ephesians, chapter 2, verses 13 and 14. The motto further emphasizes the cross of Christ which reconciles our differences and unites all in faith.

Behind the arms is placed a gold archiepiscopal cross with double traverse. Surrounding the shield or “achievement,” is a pontifical hat with ten tassels on each side in four rows, all in green

Prior to 1870, the pontifical hat was worn in solemn conclaves held in conjunction with papal functions. The color of the pontifical hat and the number and color of the tassels were signs of the rank of a prelate, a custom which is still preserved in ecclesiastical heraldry.

Most Rev. Eugene A. Marino, Third Archbishop of Atlanta (1988-1990)

Archbishop Eugene A. Marino

Archbishop Eugene A. Marino was installed as the third Archbishop of Atlanta on May 5, 1988.  He was the first African-American to be named Archbishop in the United States.  On July 10, 1990 Archbishop Marino resigned his position.  He died in New York on November 12, 2000.

Most Re.v Eugene A. Marino
Most Re.v Eugene A. Marino
Coat of Arms

marino_armsThe entire “achievement,” or coat of arms as it is generally called, is composed of the shield with its charges, the motto and the external ornaments. As one looks at the shield the terms dexter (right) and sinister (left) must be understood contrariwise, as the shield was worn on the arm in medieval days and these terms were used in the relationship of the one bearing the shield.

The dexter impalement is given in ecclesiastical heraldry to the arms of jurisdiction; in this instance, the arms of the Archdiocese of Atlanta.

Atlanta known as the “Crossroads of the South,” because of converging railroads which gave the city its early prominence, received its name as the eastern terminus of the Western and Atlantic Railroad which connected north Georgia with the Tennessee River. Originally called Whitehall, then Terminus, and afterwards in 1843 Marthasville, the state legislature finally acquiesced to the wishes of the railroad and accepted the name of Atlanta in 1847, thus naming the city indirectly after the Atlantic Ocean.

The Atlantic Ocean is represented on the shield of the archdiocese by white and blue wavy bars, the heraldic equivalent of the waves of the sea; seven bars in number to symbolize the Seven Sacraments.

The crown of Christ the King denotes the title of the cathedral church, the Eternal King whose redeeming Sacrifice on the Cross is renewed daily in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Above the crown is placed the Cherokee rose, the State flower of Georgia (Rosa Laevigata), as befits an archdiocese located in the Capital City. The Cherokee rose is a white flower with a yellow center.

The crown of Christ the King, in the arms of the Archdiocese of Atlanta, also has the secondary representation of the crown of King George II of England after whom Georgia was named. The blue and white wavy bands may be said as well to symbolize the rolling foothills of the Blue Ridge country; but, more important, these are the colors of our Blessed Mother.

The sinister impalement, on the right of the viewer, bears the personal arms of Archbishop Marino. These consist of a blue shield with a lamb in a walking position supporting with its right foreleg a gold pastoral staff. The chief or upper portion of the shield is silver with a wavy line separating the upper and lower portions. A red chevron is superimposed on the upper portion.

The lamb has an honored and ancient history in Christian art as a symbol of Christ and the Eucharist as well as being the object of the shepherd’s care.

In this instance, the lamb is supporting a pastoral staff by which Archbishop Marino wishes to emphasize the strength which comes from the unity of the pastor with those committed to his care. The lamb recalls the words of Christ to Simon Peter: “Feed my lambs,” as recorded by John the Evangelist in his Gospel chapter 21, verse 15, and selected by Archbishop Marino as his episcopal motto. The lamb also recalls the archbishop’s paternal heritage for it is the chief element on the Great Seal of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

The wavy chief, upper portion, symbolic of water, both scripturally and sacramentally recalls the necessity of washing, cleansing and giving of life to those who would live in Christ. It also represents the archbishop’s native state of Mississippi, “The Father of Waters,” and acknowledges his maternal heritage and birthplace.

It is an established custom in ecclesiastical heraldry for members of religious orders who are raised to the episcopate to display the arms of their community, or part of it, in their episcopal arms. In keeping with this custom, the archbishop, a member of the Society of Saint Joseph and the Sacred Heart (Jospehites), selected the carpenter’s square as a chevron from the arms of the community. It is tinctured red in honor of the Sacred Heart.

The blue field of the archbishop’s shield honors the Blessed Virgin Mary. It also is found in the arms of the Josephite community.

Behind the arms is placed a gold archiepiscopal cross with double traverse. Surrounding the shield or “achievement,” is a pontifical hat with ten tassels on each side in four rows, all in green.

Prior to 1870, the pontifical hat was worn in solemn conclaves held in conjunction with papal functions. The color of the pontifical hat and the number and color of the tassels were signs of the rank of a prelate, a custom which is still preserved in ecclesiastical heraldry.

Most Rev. Thomas A. Donnellan, Second Archbishop of Atlanta (1968-1987)

Archbishop Thomas A. Donnellan was appointed the second Archbishop of Atlanta on May 24, 1968 and was installed on July 16, 1968. Archbishop Donnellan, 54 years old at the time, was a native of New York City. Prior to his Atlanta appointment he had served four years as Bishop of Ogdensburg, New York.

The population of the Atlanta Archdiocese tripled during his 19 years as Archbishop and the number of Catholics grew from 50,000 in 1968 to 175,000. Thirty-two parishes were established during this time. Archbishop Donnellan suffered a stroke on May 1, 1987 and died on October 15, 1987.

Coat of Arms

donnellan_armsThe entire “achievement,” or coat of arms as it is generally called, is composed of the shield with its charges, the motto and the external ornaments. As one looks at the shield the terms dexter (right) and sinister (left) must be understood contrariwise, as the shield was worn on the arm in medieval days and these terms were used in the relationship of the one bearing the shield.

The dexter impalement is given in ecclesiastical heraldry to the arms of jurisdiction; in this instance, the arms of the Archdiocese of Atlanta.

Atlanta known as the “Crossroads of the South,” because of converging railroads which gave the city its early prominence, received its name as the eastern terminus of the Western and Atlantic Railroad which connected north Georgia with the Tennessee River. Originally called Whitehall, then Terminus, and afterwards in 1843 Marthasville, the state legislature finally acquiesced to the wishes of the railroad and accepted the name of Atlanta in 1847, thus naming the city indirectly after the Atlantic Ocean.

The Atlantic Ocean is represented on the shield of the archdiocese by white and blue wavy bars, the heraldic equivalent of the waves of the sea; seven bars in number to symbolize the Seven Sacraments.

The crown of Christ the King denotes the title of the cathedral church, the Eternal King whose redeeming Sacrifice on the Cross is renewed daily in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Above the crown is placed the Cherokee rose, the State flower of Georgia (Rosa Laevigata), as befits an archdiocese located in the Capital City. The Cherokee rose is a white flower with a yellow center.

The crown of Christ the King, in the arms of the Archdiocese of Atlanta, also has the secondary representation of the crown of King George II of England after whom Georgia was named. The blue and white wavy bands may be said as well to symbolize the rolling foothills of the Blue Ridge country; but, more important, these are the colors of our Blessed Mother.

The sinister impalement, on the right of the viewer, bears the personal arms of Archbishop Donnellan.

The oak tree from the coat of arms of the Donnellan family of Galway, the ancestors of the Archbishop, has been emblazoned on the personal arms, but the field has been changed from silver to gold that the Irish colors might prevail to pay homage to Saint Patrick, the title of the Cathedral of the Archdiocese of New York, where Archbishop Donnellan spent the early years of his priesthood.

The ermine spots at either side are derived from the coat of arms of Francis Cardinal Spellman, the late Cardinal-Archbishop of New York, by whom Archbishop Donnellan was ordained a priest and consecrated a bishop.

The chief (upper portion) is given to two spearheads at either side of a saltire. The spearheads recall that the archbishop’s baptismal patron, Saint Thomas was martyred by these instruments. The saltire is the well-known symbol of Saint Andrew, the Apostle, whose name the Archbishop also bears. Saint Andrew, the brother of Saint Peter, is believed to have been martyred upon a cross in the shape of the letter X.

The motto, “Ministrare non Ministrari,” is translated “To serve, not to be served.” The full text of the scriptural verse from which the motto is derived reads: “… even as the Son of Man has not come to be served but to serve, and to give his life for the ransom for many.” (Matthew 20:28). A motto expresses briefly an ideal, a plan of life and the spirit of the one who selects it.

The external ornaments are composed of the pontifical hat, with its tassels, disposed in four rows, all in green, and the archiepiscopal cross with double transverse tinctured in gold. These are the trappings of a prelate of the rank of archbishop.

Prior to 1870, the pontifical hat was worn in solemn conclaves held in conjunction with papal functions. The color of the pontifical hat and the number and color of the tassels were signs of the rank of a prelate, a custom which is still preserved in ecclesiastical heraldry.

Most Rev. Joseph L. Bernardin, First Auxiliary Bishop of Atlanta (1966-1968)

Auxiliary Bishop (Mar 9, 1966 to Apr 5,1968)

Most Rev. Paul J. Hallinan, First Archbishop of Atlanta (1962-1968)

On February 21, 1962 the Diocese of Atlanta was elevated to the status of Archdiocese. Paul J. Hallinan, Bishop of Charleston, S.C. was named the first Archbishop of Atlanta.

Born in Painesville, Ohio, April 8, 1911, he was ordained to the priesthood in Cleveland in 1937 and served as an army chaplain in the South Pacific during World War II. He was installed as Archbishop of Atlanta on March 29, 1962. Archbishop Hallinan is best remembered for his personal dedication to the cause of social justice and his involvement in the civil rights activity of the 1960’s. He was also deeply involved in the renewal of the Catholic Church, especially in the area of worship, during and following the Second Vatican Council. On March 27, 1968 Archbishop Hallinan died after a long battle with hepatitis.

During the last two years of his life, Archbishop Hallinan was assisted by Auxiliary Bishop Joseph L. Bernardin, who eventually became Cardinal-Archbishop of Chicago.

Coat of Arms

hallinan_armsThe entire “achievement,” or coat of arms as it is generally called, is composed of the shield with its charges, the motto and the external ornaments. As one looks at the shield the terms Dexter (right) and sinister (left) must be understood contrariwise, as the shield was worn on the arm in medieval days and these terms were used in the relationship of the one bearing the shield.

The dexter impalement is given in ecclesiastical heraldry to the arms of jurisdiction; in this instance, the arms of the Archdiocese of Atlanta.

Atlanta known as the “Crossroads of the South,” because of converging railroads which gave the city its early prominence, received its name as the eastern terminus of the Western and Atlantic Railroad which connected north Georgia with the Tennessee River. Originally called Whitehall, then Terminus, and afterwards in 1843 Marthasville, the state legislature finally acquiesced to the wishes of the railroad and accepted the name of Atlanta in 1847, thus naming the city indirectly after the Atlantic Ocean.

The Atlantic Ocean is represented on the shield of the archdiocese by white and blue wavy bars, the heraldic equivalent of the waves of the sea; seven bars in number to symbolize the Seven Sacraments.

The crown of Christ the King denotes the title of the cathedral church, the Eternal King whose redeeming Sacrifice on the Cross is renewed daily in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Above the crown is placed the Cherokee rose, the State flower of Georgia (Rosa Laevigata), as befits an archdiocese located in the Capital City. The Cherokee rose is a white flower with a yellow center.

The crown of Christ the King, in the arms of the Archdiocese of Atlanta, also has the secondary representation of the crown of King George II of England after whom Georgia was named. The blue and white wavy bands may be said as well to symbolize the rolling foothills of the Blue Ridge country; but, more important, these are the colors of our Blessed Mother.

The sinister impalement, on the right of the viewer, bears the personal arms of Archbishop Hallinan.

The arms of the Irish Hallinan family consist of a silver field emblazoned with a green oak tree, its roots exposed, and bearing a golden crown in the middle of the foliage. These arms have been “differenced” by the addition of a golden sword to honor Saint Paul, the baptismal patron of the archbishop, and by two red hearts, from the coat of arms of the revered Cardinal Newman, to honor the titular of the Newman Foundation of Western Reserve University, where the archbishop served as chaplain at the time of his elevation to the episcopacy.

The tree of the Hallinan arms has more than a passing interest inasmuch as the grandfather and father of the archbishop were both nurserymen.

O’Hallinan is derived from the Gaelic “Hailgheanain,” variously spelled O’Hallinaine, O’Hallinan, Hallinan, Hallanan and Halnan, who are descendants of “Ailgheanan,” the diminutive of “Ailghean,” meaning “noble offspring.” It is an old Munster surname found chiefly in Cork and Limerick counties.

The motto, “Ut Diligatis Invicem” is translated “That you love one another.” The full text of this verse from the Gospel of Saint John reads: “This is my commandment, that you love one another as I have loved you” (15:12), a part of the discourse of Our Lord to the apostles at the Last Supper.

Behind the arms is placed a gold archiepiscopal cross with double traverse, the mitre and the crosier. Surrounding the shield or “achievement,” is a pontifical hat with ten tassels on each side in four rows, all in green

Prior to 1870, the pontifical hat was worn in solemn conclaves held in conjunction with papal functions. The color of the pontifical hat and the number and color of the tassels were signs of the rank of a prelate, a custom which is still preserved in ecclesiastical heraldry.

Most. Rev. Francis E. Hyland, First Bishop of Atlanta (1956-1962)

The first bishop of the Diocese of Atlanta was Francis E. Hyland, a native of Philadelphia, who had served as Auxiliary Bishop of Savannah since 1949. He began his service to the new diocese as both the city of Atlanta and the resident Catholic population were experiencing rapid growth. At age 60 Bishop Hyland resigned because of ill health.

Coat of Arms

hyland_armsThe entire “achievement,” or coat of arms as it is generally called, is composed of the shield with its charges, the motto and the external ornaments. As one looks at the shield the terms dexter (right) and sinister (left) must be understood contrariwise, as the shield was worn on the arm in medieval days and these terms were used in the relationship of the one bearing the shield.

The dexter impalement is given in ecclesiastical heraldry to the arms of jurisdiction; in this instance, the arms of the Diocese of Atlanta.

Atlanta known as the “Crossroads of the South,” because of converging railroads which gave the city its early prominence, received its name as the eastern terminus of the Western and Atlantic Railroad which connected north Georgia with the Tennessee River. Originally called Whitehall, then Terminus, and afterwards in 1843 Marthasville, the state legislature finally acquiesced to the wishes of the railroad and accepted the name of Atlanta in 1847, thus naming the city indirectly after the Atlantic Ocean.

The Atlantic Ocean is represented on the shield of the diocese by white and blue wavy bars, the heraldic equivalent of the waves of the sea; seven bars in number to symbolize the Seven Sacraments.

The crown of Christ the King denotes the title of the cathedral church, the Eternal King whose redeeming Sacrifice on the Cross is renewed daily in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Above the crown is placed the Cherokee rose, the State flower of Georgia (Rosa Laevigata), as befits a diocese located in the Capital City. The Cherokee rose is a white flower with a yellow center.

The crown of Christ the King, in the arms of the Diocese of Atlanta, also has the secondary representation of the crown of King George II of England after whom Georgia was named. The blue and white wavy bands may be said as well to symbolize the rolling foothills of the Blue Ridge country; but, more important, these are the colors of our Blessed Mother.

The sinister impalement, on the right of the viewer, bears the personal arms of Bishop Hyland.

The coat of arms is based on “faolan,” the Gaelic derivation of Hyland. “Faolan” is the diminutive of “faol” which means “wolf.” The name was common in the sixteenth century in Offaly and Leix, whence it spread into other parts of Ireland. Hyland is the usual form of the name in Leinster.

Consequently, a wolf’s head erased (torn) is placed in the pronominal or paternal quarters, the first and the fourth. In these quarters there is also a reference to “McCarron,” the maiden name of Bishop Hyland’s mother. McCarron is derived from the Gaelic root “Ciar” meaning black, and the bishop has so tinctured there quarters to commemorate his mother on his episcopal escutcheon.

The silver cross and the two fleurs-de-lis have been abstracted from the second and third quarters of the coat of arms of Saint Francis de Sales to honor Bishop Hyland’s baptismal patron. The fleurs-de-lis are golden on the arms of Saint Francis, but they have been changed to silver in order that the colors of the Blessed Virgin Mary, blue and white (silver) might be displayed and that this distinction might constitute a brisure to make these Hyland arms particularly those of the bishop.

The motto “Ad Jesum Per Mariam,” is translated “To Jesus through Mary.”

The external ornaments are composed of the green pontifical hat with its six like-tinctured tassels on each side disposed in three rows, the mitre, the processional cross and the crosier, the latter in gold.

Prior to 1870, the pontifical hat was worn in solemn conclaves held in conjunction with papal functions. The color of the pontifical hat and the number and color of the tassels were signs of the rank of a prelate, a custom which is still preserved in ecclesiastical heraldry.

Previous Jurisdiction

During Colonial days the Vicar Apostolic of the London District held jurisdiction over the American colonies. About thirty priests attended the faithful who were found chiefly in Maryland and Pennsylvania, hence we find the beginnings of ecclesiastical organization in Catholic Maryland.

The last Vicar-Apostolic of the London District before the American Revolution was Dr. Richard Challoner, Bishop of Debra who was consecrated January 29, 1741. He died in January, 1781. His coadjutor, Right Rev. James Talbot, consecrated Bishop of Birtha, August 24, 1759, was actively in charge of the spiritual welfare of the Catholics in the Colonies at the time of the Revolution. When the Colonies declared their independence of England communication between the London Vicariate and the Catholic priests and people of the thirteen colonies ceased.

At the solicitation of the American clergy, after peace had succeeded war, Pope Pius VI appointed Father John Carroll, a missionary priest and a native of Maryland, Prefect-Apostolic on July 23, 1785. His jurisdiction as a Prefect-Apostolic did not include the whole of the United States. Indian Missions in Maine, New York and the present state of Ohio, and settlements in the present states of Michigan, Indiana and Illinois were under the charge of the Bishop of Quebec. Florida, a part of which state was in later years included in the Diocese of Savannah was not at that time a part of the United States. It was under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Santiago de Cuba.

The clergy of the new Republic, about thirty in number, assembled at White Marsh under date of March 12, 1788, to send a petition to the Holy Father asking for the appointment of a Bishop for the new republic and suggesting Baltimore as the See. The Holy Father received the petition and granted that the clergy propose the priest for this exalted dignity, the first bishop for the new republics. Father John Carroll received 24 of the 26 votes. Pope Pius VI, on November 6, 1789, erected the See of Baltimore and appointed Father John Carroll the first Bishop. He was consecrated bishop in the chapel of Lulworth Castle, England, on August 15, 1790.

The See of Baltimore embraced the territory of the new republic, the church grew rapidly, new Sees were erected. The Catholics in the Southern states solicited the appointment of a bishop. The Diocese of Charleston, embracing North and South Carolina, Georgia and Florida, was erected June 12, 1820. The first Bishop of Charleston was the Right Rev. John England. He was consecrated September 21, 1820, in the church of St. Finbar, in the City of Cork, Ireland. The See of Charleston was erected by Pope Pius VII.

The Seventh Provincial Council of Baltimore, during the second private session of the Council on May 8, 1849, at the request of Bishop Reynolds, second Bishop of Charleston, petitioned the Holy See to erect the See of Savannah. Pope Pius IX erected the Diocese of Savannah. The papal document, Exigit Pastorale Munus, erecting the See of Savannah, is dated July 19, 1850. Right Rev. Francis Xavier Gartland, the first Bishop of Savannah, was consecrated on September 10, 1850, in Philadelphia. The Diocese of Savannah then comprised the State of Georgia and Florida east of the Apalachicola River. It covered an area of about 90,000 square miles. In 1857 the Holy See severed Florida from the Savannah jurisdiction. The See of Savannah embracing the State of Georgia.

Under date of January 5, 1937, the Holy See changed the name of the title of the See to the Diocese of Savannah-Atlanta. This decree was solemnly promulgated by Most Rev. Michael J. Curley, Archbishop of Baltimore, on the night of April 15, 1937, in the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in Savannah, Georgia. Most Rev. Gerald Patrick O’Hara, D. D., J., U. D., became the first bishop of the Diocese of Savannah-Atlanta. Before his appointment as Bishop of Savannah, he served as auxiliary bishop of Philadelphia. He was consecrated Titular Bishop of Heliopolis on May 20, 1929, and was installed as Bishop of Savannah on January 15, 1936. The Savannah-Atlanta Diocese comprised the same territory as the recent Savannah Diocese, the State of Georgia.

In 1956 the Diocese of Atlanta was established, and in 1962 it was raised to the status of Archdiocese.

When Terminus, the precursor to the city of Atlanta, was first definitely located in 1837 it was in the diocese of Charleston, S.C. This See, established July 12, 1820, included South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia. Right Reverend John England, the first Bishop of Charleston, was still the shepherd of the Catholics who were scattered through this vast territory. Bishop England died April 11, 1842, and was succeeded by Right Reverend Ignatius A. Reynolds, who was Bishop of Charleston until his death on March 9, 1855. In 1839, Bishop England stated there were but eleven priests in Georgia. There is no record that Bishop England was ever in our city. But Bishop Reynolds was in Atlanta and dedicated the first Immaculate Conception Church. On February 22, 1848, he administered the Sacrament of Confirmation to a class of twelve.

The new Diocese of Savannah was created in 1850 by Pius IX and its first bishop, Rt. Rev. F. X. Gartland, was consecrated on September 10, 1850. Atlanta then became a part of the new See of Savannah. Bishop Gartland was in Atlanta in June, 1854. He confirmed a class of nineteen on June 28, 1854. Immediately afterwards he returned to Savannah where an epidemic of yellow fever had broken out and in less than three months he had succumbed to that dread disease while caring for the members of his flock.

The second Bishop of Savannah was the Right Reverend John Barry. When Father Barry was performing noble work in the little town of Atlanta he was pastor of Augusta and the missions attached and he was also Vicar General of the Diocese of Charleston. After the creation of the new See of Savannah he was made its Vicar General in 1853. After the death of Bishop Gartland he was administrator of the diocese and on August 2, 1857, was consecrated Bishop of Savannah. Bishop Barry was in Atlanta in 1858, and administered the Sacrament of Confirmation to a class in the first Immaculate conception Church, which he did much to organize and which he served as a missionary. He only lived two years after his consecration as bishop. He died November 21, 1859.

Before the completion of the new church three other bishops were appointed to the See of Savannah. Right Reverend Augustus Verot served from 1861 to 1870 during the trying period of the war. Right Reverend Ignatius Persico, afterwards cardinal, from 1870 to 1872, and Right Reverend William H. Gross, C. SS. R., who dedicated the present Immaculate Conception Church was consecrated April 27, 1873. He was Bishop of Savannah until 1885.